Council of Florence
[1438 A.D. - 1445 A.D.]
An Infallible Pope with An Infallible Council
Both Verified and Infallibly Decreed - Forever
The Form for the Double Consecration
Eugene, Bishop, servant of the servants of God, for an everlasting remembrance.
1. Sing praises to the Lord for He has done gloriously; let this be known in all the earth. Shout, and sing for joy, O inhabitant of Zion, for great in your midst is the holy one of Israel. To sing and to exult in the Lord certainly befits the Church of God for his great magnificence and the glory of his name, which the most merciful God has deigned to bring about on this very day. It is right, indeed, to praise and bless with all our hearts our Saviour, who daily builds up His Holy Church with new additions. His benefactions to his Christian people are at all times many and great and manifest more clearly than the light of day his immense love for us. Yet if we look more closely at the benefactions which the Divine Mercy has deigned to effect in most recent times, we shall assuredly be able to judge that in these days of ours the gifts of his love have been more in number and greater in kind than in many past ages.
2. For in less than three years our Lord Jesus Christ by His indefatigable kindness, to the common and lasting joy of the whole of Christianity, has generously effected in this holy ecumenical synod the most salutary union of three great nations. Hence it has come about that nearly the whole of the East that adores the glorious name of Christ and no small part of the north, after prolonged discord with the Holy Roman Church, have come together in the same bond of faith and love. For first the Greeks and those subject to the four Patriarchal Sees, which cover many races and nations and tongues, then the Armenians, who are a race of many peoples, and today indeed the Jacobites [Copts], who are a great people in Egypt, have been united with the Holy Apostolic See.
3. Nothing is more pleasing to our Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, than mutual love among people and nothing can give more glory to His name and advantage to the church than that Christians, with all discord between them banished, should come together in the same purity of faith. Deservedly all of us ought to sing for joy and to exult in the Lord; we whom the Divine Clemency has made worthy to see in our days such great splendor of the Christian Faith. With the greatest readiness We therefore announce these marvelous facts to the whole Christian world, so that just as We are filled with unspeakable joy for the glory of God and the exaltation of the church, We may make others participate in this great happiness. Thus all of us with one voice may magnify and glorify God and may return abundant and daily thanks, as is fitting, to His majesty for so many and so great marvellous benefits bestowed on His Holy Church in this age. He who diligently does the work of God not only awaits merit and reward in Heaven but also deserves generous glory and praise among people.
4. Therefore We consider that our venerable Brother John, Patriarch of the Jacobites [Copts], whose zeal for this holy union is immense, should deservedly be praised and extolled by Us and the whole church and deserves, together with his whole race, the general approval of all Christians. Moved by Us, through Our envoy and Our letter, to send an embassy to us and this Sacred Synod and to unite himself and his people in the same Faith with the Roman church, he sent to Us and this Synod the beloved Son, Andrew, an Egyptian, endowed in no mean [less] degree with Faith and morals and Abbot of the Monastery of Saint Anthony in Egypt, in which Saint Anthony himself is said to have lived and died.
5. The Patriarch, fired with great zeal, ordered and commissioned him reverently to accept, in the name of the Patriarch and his Jacobites [Copts], the Doctrine of the Faith that the Roman Church holds and preaches, and afterwards to bring this Doctrine to the Patriarch and the Jacobites [Copts] so that they might acknowledge and formally approve it and preach it in their lands.
6. We, therefore, to whom the Lord gave the task of feeding Christ’s sheep, had Abbot Andrew carefully examined by some outstanding men of this Sacred Council on the Articles of the Faith, the Sacraments of the Church and certain other matters pertaining to salvation. At length, after an exposition of the Catholic Faith to the Abbot, as far as this seemed to be necessary, and his humble acceptance of it, We have delivered in the name of the Lord, in this Solemn Session, with the approval of this Sacred Ścumenical Council of Florence, the following true and necessary Doctrine.
7. First, then, the Sacrosanct Roman Church, founded by the voice of our Lord and Savior, firmly believes, professes, and preaches one true God omnipotent, unchangeable, and eternal, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; one in essence, three in persons; Father unborn, Son born of the Father, Holy Ghost proceeding from Father and Son; that the Father is not Son or Holy Ghost, that Son is not Father or Holy Ghost; that Holy Ghost is not Father or Son; but Father alone is Father, Son alone is Son, Holy Ghost alone is Holy Ghost. The Father alone begot the Son of His own substance; the Son alone was begotten of the Father alone; the Holy Ghost alone proceeds at the same time from the Father and Son. These three persons are one God not three gods, because there is one substance of the three, one essence, one nature, one Godhead, one immensity, one eternity, and all these things are one where no opposition of relationship interferes.
8. Because of this unity the Father is entire in the Son, entire in the Holy Ghost; the Son is entire in the Father, entire in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Ghost is entire in the Father, entire in the Son. No one either excels another in eternity, or exceeds in magnitude, or is superior in power. For the fact that the Son is of the Father is eternal and without beginning. and that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son is eternal and without beginning. Whatever the Father is or has, He does not have from another, but from Himself; and He is the principle without principle. Whatever the Son is or has, he has from the Father and is principle from principle. Whatever the Holy Ghost is or has, He has simultaneously from the Father and the Son. But the Father and the Son are not two principles of the Holy Ghost, but one principle, just as the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost are not three principles of creation but one principle.
9. Whoever, therefore, have adverse and contrary opinions the Church disapproves and anathematizes and declares to be foreign to the Christian body which is the Church. Hence it condemns Sabellius who confuses the persons and completely takes away their real distinction. It condemns the Arians, the Eunomians, the Macedonians who say that only the Father is the true God, but put the Son and the Holy Ghost in the order of creatures. It condemns also any others whatsoever who place grades or inequality in the Trinity.
10. Most emphatically it believes, professes, and preaches that the one true God, Father and Son and Holy Ghost, is the creator of all things visible and invisible, who, when He willed it, out of His goodness, created all creatures, spiritual as well as corporal; good indeed, since they were made by the highest good, but changeable, because they were made from nothing, and it asserts that nature is not evil, since all nature, insofar as it is nature, is good.
11. It professes one and the same God as the author of the Old and New Testament, that is, of the Law and the Prophets and the Gospel, since the saints of both Testaments have spoken with the inspiration of the same Holy Ghost, whose books, which are contained under the following titles it accepts and venerates.
12. Books of the Old Testament: The five books of Moses, namely Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Josue, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two of Paralipomenon, the first book of Esdras, and the second which is called Nehemias, Tobias, Judith, Esther, Job, the Psalter of David consisting of 150 Psalms, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Isaias, Jeremias, Lamentations, Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel; the Twelve Minor Prophets, that is Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, Micaheas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zacharias, Malachias; two books of the Machabees, the first and the second.
13. Books of the New Testament: the Four Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; the Acts of the Apostles, written by Luke the Evangelist, fourteen Epistles of Paul the Apostle, to the Romans, to the Corinthians two, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, to the Colossians, two to the Thessalonians, two to Timothy, to Titus, to Philemon, to the Hebrews; one of the Apostle James, two of Peter the Apostle, three of John the Apostle, one of the Apostle Jude, and the Apocalypse of John the Apostle. Hence it anathematizes the madness of the Manicheans who posited two first principles, one of the visible, and another of the invisible; and they have said that there is one God of the New Testament, another God of the Old Testament.
14. It firmly believes, professes and preaches that one person of the Trinity, true God, Son of God begotten by the Father, consubstantial and coeternal with the Father, in the plenitude of time which the inscrutable depth of divine counsel determined for the salvation of the human race, assumed true and complete human nature from the immaculate womb of the Virgin Mary, and joined it to Himself in the unity of person, with such unity that whatever is of God there, is not separated from man, and whatever is of man, is not divided from the Godhead; He is one and the same undivided, both natures, God and man, remaining in their own special properties, God and man, Son of God and Son of man, equal to the Father according to His Divinity, less than the Father according to His humanity, immortal and eternal from the nature of the Godhead, passable and temporal from the condition of assumed humanity.
15. It firmly believes, professes, and preaches that the Son of God, in His assumed humanity, was truly born of the Virgin, truly suffered, truly died and was buried, truly rose again from the dead, ascended into Heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father, and will come at the end of time to judge the living and the dead.
16. It, moreover, anathematizes, execrates, and condemns every heresy that suggests contrary things. And first it condemns Ebion, Cerinthus, Marcion, Paul of Samosata, Photinus, and all similar blasphemers, who, being unable to accept the personal union of humanity with the Word, denied that our Lord Jesus Christ was true God, proclaiming Him to be simply a man, who was called Divine man by reason of a greater participation in Divine Grace, which He had received by merit of a more holy life.
17. It anathematizes also Manes and his followers who, thinking vainly that the Son of God had assumed not a real, but an ephemeral body, completely rejected the Truth of the humanity in Christ. And also Valentinus who asserts that the Son of God took nothing from the Virgin Mary, but assumed a heavenly body and passed through the womb of the Virgin just as water flows and runs through an aqueduct. Arius also, who asserted that the body taken from the Virgin had no soul, and would have the Godhead take the place of the soul. Also Apollinaris, who, understanding that there was no true humanity if in Christ the soul is denied as giving the body form, posited only a sensitive soul, but held that the Godhead of the Word took the place of a rational soul.
18. It also anathematizes Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius who assert that the humanity was united with the Son of God through Grace, and hence there are two persons in Christ, just as they confess that there are two natures, since they were unable to understand that the union of humanity with the Word was hypostatic, and so refused to accept the subsistence of God - the Logos - the Word. For according to this blasphemy, the Word was not made flesh, but the Word through Grace lived in the flesh; that is, He was made not the Son of God, but rather the Son of God lived in man.
19. It anathematizes also, execrates, and condemns Eutyches the Archimandrite who believed, according to the blasphemy of Nestorius, that the Truth of the Incarnation is excluded, and therefore it is fitting that the humanity was so united to the Word of God that the person of the Godhead and of humanity were one and the same person. And also, because he could not grasp the unity of person as long as a plurality of natures existed, since he posited that there was one person of the Godhead and humanity in Christ, therefore he asserted that there was one nature, meaning that before the union there was a duality of natures, which passed into a single nature in the act of assumption, thereby, with the greatest blasphemy and impiety, that either the humanity was turned into the Godhead, or the Godhead was turned into the humanity.
20. It also anathematizes, execrates and condemns Macarius of Antioch and all others who hold similar views. Although he had a correct understanding of the duality of natures and the unity of person, yet he erred greatly concerning the operations of Christ when he said that in Christ there was one operation (principle of action) and one will on the part of both natures. All these, together with their heresies, the Holy Roman Church anathematizes, affirming that there are two wills and two operations (principles of action) in Christ.
21. It firmly believes, professes, and teaches that no one conceived of a man and a woman was ever freed of the domination of the Devil, except through the merit of the Mediator between God and men, our Lord Jesus Christ. He Who was conceived without sin, was born and died. He alone by His death overthrew the enemy of the human race by destroying our sins, and unlocking the entrance to the Kingdom of Heaven, which the first man, by his own sin, had locked against himself and all his posterity. All the sacred rites - sacrifices, sacraments, and ceremonies - of the Old Testament were a promise that He would come at sometime in the future.
22. It firmly believes, professes, and teaches that the legalisms of the law of the Old Testament, the Mosaic Law, which are divided into ceremonies, sacred rites, and sacraments, because they were instituted to signify something in the future, although they were sufficient for the Divine worship of that time, after our Lord Jesus Christ had come, what had only been signified by them ended and the Sacraments of the New Testament began.
23. Therefore, whosoever, after the Passion and Death of Christ, would place any hope in these legalisms of the Old Law, and would submit to them as being necessary for salvation, as if without them, faith in Christ could not save, sin mortally.
24. Yet it does not deny that after the Passion of Christ, until the promulgation of the Gospel, that they could have been observed, provided that they were in no way believed to be necessary for salvation. But after the promulgation of the Gospel, it asserts that these things cannot be observed without the loss of eternal salvation. All, therefore, who after that time observe [ritual] circumcision and the [Saturday] Sabbath and the other requirements of the law, it declares alien to the Christian faith and unable to participate in eternal salvation, unless someday they recover from these errors. Therefore, it commands all who glory in the name of Christian, at whatever time, before or after Baptism, to cease entirely from circumcision, since, whether or not one places hope in it, it cannot possibly be observed without loss of eternal salvation.
25. Regarding children, since the danger of death is often present and the only remedy available to them is the Sacrament of Baptism by which they are snatched away from the dominion of the Devil and adopted among the sons of God, it admonishes that Holy Baptism ought not to be deferred for forty or eighty days, or any time according to the observance of certain people, but rather that it should be administered as soon as it can be done conveniently. But when there is imminent danger of death, the child should be Baptized, using the rite of the Church, early and without any delay, even by a layman or a woman, if a Priest should be unavailable, as is contained more fully in the Decree of the Armenians.
26. It firmly believes, professes and teaches that ‘every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected that is received with thanksgiving’ (1 Timothy 4:4), because, according to the word of the Lord ‘not what goeth into the mouth defileth a man’ (Matthew 15:11). It asserts that because the differences in the Mosaic Law between clean and unclean foods belongs to ceremonial practices, these rites have passed away and lost their efficacy with the coming of the Gospel.
27. And it says also that the prohibition of the Apostles, to abstain ‘from things sacrificed to idols, and from blood and from things strangled’ (Acts 15:29) befitted that time in which the one Church arose from the Jews and the Gentiles, who previously had lived with different ceremonies and customs. This was so that the Gentiles should observe some things in common with the Jews, so that occasion was thereby furnished for them coming together into one worship and one Faith in God so that any cause of dissension might be removed, since by ancient custom blood and strangled things seemed abominable to Jews, and Gentiles could be thought to be returning to idolatry because of the eating of things sacrificed.
28. But where the Christian religion is so propagated that no carnal Jew has joined the Church, but rather that all have joined the Church, and practice the same rites and ceremonies of the Gospel, believing ‘all things clean to the clean’ (Titus 1:15), with the ending of the reason for this Apostolic prohibition, the effect also ended.
29. Thus it declares that the nature of no food, which society admits, is to be condemned, and that no distinction is to be made by anyone at all, whether a man or a woman, between animals, and by whatever kind of death they meet their end; although for the health of body, for the exercise of Virtue, for regular and ecclesiastical discipline, many things that are not forbidden should still be given up, since, according to the Apostle, ‘all things are lawful, but all things are not expedient’ (1 Corinthians 6:12; 10:22).
30. It firmly believes, professes and preaches that all those who are outside the Catholic Church, not only pagans, but also Jews and Heretics and Schismatics, cannot share in Eternal Life, but will go ‘into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels’ (Matthew 25:41), unless before the end of life the same have been added to the flock [joined the Catholic Church]. That the unity of the ecclesiastical body is so strong that only to those who remain in it are the Sacraments of the Church beneficial for salvation. Fastings, almsgiving, and other works of piety and exercises of Christian service produce eternal rewards. But no one can be saved, no matter whatever almsgiving he has practiced, or even if he has shed his blood for the name of Christ, unless he has persevered in the bosom and the unity of the Catholic Church.
31. It embraces, approves and accepts the Holy Synod of the 318 Fathers at Nicæa, which was convened in the time of our predecessor most Blessed Silvester and the great and most pious Emperor Constantine. In it the impious Arian heresy and its author was condemned and there was defined that the Son of God is consubstantial and coeternal with the Father.
32. It also embraces, approves and accepts the Holy Synod of 150 Fathers at Constantinople, which was convoked in the time of our predecessor most Blessed Damasus and the elder Theodosius and which anathematized the impious error of Macedonius, who asserted that the Holy Ghost is not God but a creature. Those whom they condemn, it condemns; what they approve, it approves; and in every respect it decrees whatever was defined there to remain unchanged and inviolate.
33. It also embraces, approves and accepts the first Holy Synod of 200 Fathers at Ephesus, which is third in the order of Universal Synods and was convoked under our predecessor most Blessed Celestine and the younger Theodosius. In it the blasphemy of the impious Nestorius was condemned, and there was defined that the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, True God and True man, is one and that the Blessed Ever-Virgin Mary should be preached by the whole Church, not only as Christ-bearer, but also as God-bearer, that is as Mother of God [Theotokos] as well as Mother of the man - Christ.
34. But it condemns, anathematizes and rejects the impious Second Synod of Ephesus, which was convened under our predecessor most Blessed Leo and the aforesaid Emperor. In it Dioscorus, Bishop of Alexandria, defender of the heresiarch Eutyches, and impious persecutor of Holy Flavian, Bishop of Constantinople, with cunning and threat, led the execrable synod to an approval of the impious Eutychian Heresy.
35. It also embraces, approves and accepts the Holy Synod of 630 Fathers at Chalcedon, which is fourth in the order of Universal Synods and was held in the time of our predecessor most Blessed Leo and the Emperor Marcian. In it the Eutychian Heresy, and its author, Eutyches, and its defender, Dioscorus, were condemned, and there was defined that our Lord Jesus Christ is True God and True man and that in the one and same Person the Divine and human natures remain entire, inviolate, incorrupt, unconfused and distinct; the humanity doing what befits man, the Divinity what befits God. Those whom they condemn, it condemns; those whom they approve, it approves.
36. It also embraces, approves and accepts the fifth Holy Synod, the Second of Constantinople, which was held in the time of our predecessor most Blessed Vigilius and the Emperor Justinian. In it the definition of the Sacred Council of Chalcedon about the two natures and the one person of Christ was renewed and many errors of Origen and his followers, especially about the penitence and liberation of demons and other condemned beings, were refuted and condemned.
37. It also embraces, approves and accepts the third Holy Synod of 150 Fathers at Constantinople, which is sixth in the order of Universal Synods and was convened in the time of our predecessor most Blessed Agatho and the Emperor Constantine IV. In it the Heresy of Macarius of Antioch and his adherents was condemned, and there was defined that in our Lord Jesus Christ there are two perfect and complete natures and two principles of action and also two wills, although there is one and the same Person to whom the actions of each of the two natures belong, the Divinity doing what is of God, the humanity doing what is human.
38. It also embraces, approves and accepts all other Universal Synods which were legitimately summoned, celebrated and confirmed by the authority of a Roman Pontiff, and especially this Holy Synod of Florence, in which, among other things, most holy unions with the Greeks and the Armenians have been achieved and many most salutary definitions in respect of each of these unions have been issued, as is contained in full in the Decrees previously promulgated, which are as follows: Let the heavens be glad . . . 1; Exult in God . 2
39. However, since no explanation was given in the aforesaid Decree of the Armenians in respect of the Form of words which the Holy Roman church, relying on the teaching and authority of the Apostles Peter and Paul, has always been wont to use in the Consecration of the Lord’s Body and Blood, We concluded that it should be inserted in this present text.
40. It uses this Form of words in the Consecration of the Lord’s Body:
41. And [It uses this Form of words in the Consecration] of His Blood:‘For this is My Body’. (Latin: Hoc est enim Corpus meum)
42. Whether the wheat bread, in which the Sacrament is Confected, has been baked on the same day or earlier is of no importance whatever. For, provided the substance of bread remains, there should be no doubt at all that after the aforesaid words of Consecration of the Body have been pronounced by a Priest with the intention of Consecrating, immediately it is changed in Substance into the True Body of Christ.‘For this is the Chalice of My Blood, of the New and Everlasting Covenant; the Mystery of Faith, which will be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins’.
(Latin: Hic est enim Calix Sanguinis Mei, Novi et AEterni Testamenti; Mysterium Fidei, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.)
43. It is asserted that some people reject fourth marriages as condemned. Lest sin is attributed where it does not exist, since the Apostle says that a Wife on her Husband’s death is free from his law and free in the Lord to marry whom she wishes, and since no distinction is made between the deaths of the first, second and third Husbands, We declare that not only second and third marriages but also fourth and further ones may lawfully be contracted, provided there is no Canonical impediment. We say, however, that they would be more commendable if thereafter they abstain from marriage and persevere in chastity because We consider that, just as virginity is to be preferred in praise and merit to widowhood, so chaste widowhood is preferable to marriage.
44. After all these explanations the aforesaid, Abbot Andrew, in the name of the aforesaid Patriarch, and of himself, and of all the Jacobites, received and accepted with all devotion and reverence this most salutary Synodal Decree with all its chapters, declarations, definitions, traditions, precepts and statutes and all the Doctrine contained therein, and also whatever the Holy Apostolic See and the Roman Church holds and teaches. He also reverently accepts those Doctors and Holy Fathers whom the Roman Church approves, and he holds as rejected and condemned whatever persons and things the Roman Church rejects and condemns, promising as a son of true obedience, in the name of the above persons, faithfully and always to obey the regulations and commands of the said Apostolic See.
(The Infallible Ścumenical Council of Florence - The Seventeenth Ścumenical Council, The First Council of Basel, Ferrara, Florence [Monday, April 9, 1438 A.D. - Thursday, August 7, 1445 A.D.], along with the Infallible Roman Catholic Pope Eugene IV, Gabriele Condulmer [Thursday, March 3, 1431 - Tuesday, February 23, 1447], who, using his Infallible Ordinary Magisterium, Promulgated his Infallible Papal Bulla Cantate Domino, The Papal Bulla of Union with the Copts, Session 11, Friday, February 4, 1442 A.D.; emphasis added).
Infallibility of the Roman Catholic Church
“Infallibility, (in general) exemption or immunity from liability to error or failure; (in particular) in theological usage, the supernatural prerogative by which the Church of Christ is, by a special Divine assistance, preserved from liability to error in her definitive dogmatic teaching regarding matters of faith and morals.” (“The Catholic Encyclopedia”, Volume 7, Gregory - Infallibility, Imprimatur, John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York, 1910, “Infallibility”, page 790 [column 1-b]).
“That the Church is infallible in her definitions on faith and morals is itself a Catholic dogma, which, although it was formulated ecumenically for the first time in the Vatican Council [I; 1870 A.D.], had been explicitly taught long before and had been assumed from the very beginning without question down to the time of the Protestant Reformation. The teaching of the Vatican Council [I; 1870 A.D.] is to be found in Session III, cap. 4, where it is declared that the doctrine of faith, which God has revealed, has not been proposed as a philosophical discovery to be improved upon by human talent, but has been committed as a Divine deposit to the spouse of Christ, to be faithfully guarded and infallibly interpreted by her.” (“The Catholic Encyclopedia”, Volume 7, Gregory - Infallibility, Imprimatur, John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York, 1910, “Infallibility”, page 790 [column 2-c] - page 791 [column 1-a]).
“If, during the early centuries, there was no explicit and formal discussion regarding ecclesiastical infallibility as such, yet the Church, in her corporate capacity, after the example of the Apostles at Jerusalem, always acted on the assumption that she was infallible in doctrinal matters and all the great orthodox teachers believed that she was so. Those who presumed, on whatever grounds, to contradict the Church's teaching were treated as representatives of Antichrist (cf. 1 John 2:18 sq.), and were excommunicated and anathematized.” (“The Catholic Encyclopedia”, Volume 7, Gregory - Infallibility, Imprimatur, John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York, 1910, “Infallibility”, page 793 [column 1-c to column 2-a]).
This is why the Roman Catholic Church teaches that all Roman Catholic Doctrinal Councils are Infallible.
For purposes of clarity, a Pastoral Council is not Infallible because, by its nature and constitution, it deals only with issues and problems that are only of a Pastoral nature and thereby automatically excludes, a priori, definitions on faith and morals.
In other words, Pastoral Councils are nothing more than glorified classes in Pastoral Theology and deal primarily with administrative issues in terms of running a diocese - concerning Prelates - and running a parish - concerning Priests, and similar things of this nature.
Those who want more information on this subject should consult one or more books on the subject of Pastoral Theology.
For example, one book entitled “Pastoral Theology” by Rev. William Stang, D.D., Vice-Rector of the American College, Louvain, published by Benziger Brothers, is available for free at: http://archive.org/details/pastoraltheology00stanuoft
A few of the subjects covered include: Preaching, Catechising, Sacraments, e.g. Confessions of Men, Confessions of Women, Confessions of Children, sick calls, burials, etc., Sacramentals, Exorcisms, and Pastoral Direction, i.e. Religious and Spiritual Counseling.
Formal and Solemn Infallibility of the Roman Catholic Pope
“9. Therefore, faithfully adhering to the tradition received from the beginning of the christian faith, to the glory of God our saviour, for the exaltation of the catholic religion and for the salvation of the christian people, with the approval of the sacred council, we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma that when the Roman pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is, when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole church, he possesses, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed his church to enjoy in defining doctrine concerning faith or morals. Therefore, such definitions of the Roman pontiff are of themselves, and not by the consent of the church, irreformable.” (Infallible Roman Catholic Council Vatican 1 [Wednesday, December 8, 1869 A.D. - Monday, July 18, 1870 A.D.], Session 4, Monday, July 18, 1870, First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, Chapter 4, On the infallible teaching authority of the Roman pontiff [i.e. the Pope], ¶ 9).
Pope Pius IX
Giovanni M. Mastai Ferretti
[Tuesday, June 16, 1846 - Thursday, February 7, 1878]
non-Solemn Infallibility of the Roman Catholic Pope
The Infallible Ordinary and Immediate Magisterium of the Pope
“9. So, then, if anyone says that the Roman pontiff has merely an office of supervision and guidance, and not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole church, and this not only in matters of faith and morals, but also in those which concern the discipline and government of the church dispersed throughout the whole world; or that he has only the principal part, but not the absolute fullness, of this supreme power; or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate both over all and each of the churches and over all and each of the pastors and faithful: let him be anathema.” (Infallible Roman Catholic Council Vatican 1 [Wednesday, December 8, 1869 A.D. - Monday, July 18, 1870 A.D.], Session 4, Monday, July 18, 1870, First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, Chapter 3, On the Power and Character of the Primacy of the Roman pontiff, ¶ 9).
But this power is not just limited to the Pope's immediate ordinary power within the scope of the Pope's full and supreme power of jurisdiction, but also to his official or solemn judgment, by which is meant when the Pope speaks “ex cathedra” (from the chair). This is proven in the following document:
“7. And so faith in itself, even though it may not work through charity, is a gift of God, and its operation is a work belonging to the order of salvation, in that a person yields true obedience to God himself when he accepts and collaborates with his grace which he could have rejected. Wherefore, by divine and catholic faith all those things are to be believed which are contained in the word of God as found in scripture and tradition, and which are proposed by the church as matters to be believed as divinely revealed, whether by her solemn judgment [ex cathedra] or in her [Infallible] ordinary and universal magisterium.” (Synod Vatican 1 [Wednesday, December 8, 1869 A.D. - Monday, July 18, 1870 A.D.], Session 3, April 24, 1870, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chapter 3, On Faith, ¶ 7).
When the document says that “all those things are to be believed which are contained in the word of God as found in scripture and tradition, and which are proposed by the church as matters to be believed as divinely revealed, whether by her solemn judgment [ex cathedra] or in her ordinary and universal magisterium.” what they are actually saying, without explicitly saying it - just implying it, is that it is the Pope who exercises this “solemn judgment [ex cathedra] or in HIS ordinary and universal magisterium.”
The reason is that it is ONLY the Pope who speaks ex cathedra. The Roman Catholic Church, per se, never actually speaks ex cathedra - because it is only the Pope who physically speaks “from the [Papal] chair”.
A Doctrinal Council does not sit on the Papal chair! One does not have a parade of almost 3,000 Bishops, each one of whom in a Doctrinal Council sits on the Papal chair for 5 or 10 seconds or minutes or whatever - that would be absurd!
This has been the actual historical practice of the Roman Catholic Church for centuries before Vatican 1. Vatican 1, in effect, as a consequence of their vote on Papal Infallibility, automatically legitimized and validated and declared Infallible, all of the previous Papal Constitutions, Bullae, Encyclicals, every Motu Proprio, and all other documents of every Pope throughout the history of the Roman Catholic Church.
This included every Pope before Council Vatican 1 in 1870 A.D., and also Pope Pius IX, the Pope at the time of this Council. Vatican 1, by recognizing the ordinary and universal magisterium of the Pope, thereupon automatically declared all of the official written Papal Documents of all previous Popes to be Infallible.
In addition, by logical extension, Vatican 1 extended Papal Infallibly to all acts of all previous Popes. This would include such things as the sermons, talks, speeches, conferences, meetings, letters, etc. of all previous Popes, all of which are also recognized as being Infallible, since such things are part of the Infallible Ordinary Magisterium of the Pope.
Also, remember that it was not until 1870 when Vatican 1 required the term ex cathedra to be used in Solemn Papal Decrees. Before 1870, this term was seldom, and most likely, never used at all by any Pope!
So what you have is that ALL Papal documents, sermons, speeches, talks, etc., before 1870, were all Infallible in virtue of the Immediate Ordinary Magisterium of each Pope before 1870, not because they were promulgated by the Solemn ex cathedra formula which requirement did not exist until it was required by Vatican 1.
So, for example, this is why one of the Vatican 1 Council Fathers, Bishop Dupanloup, in his famous Observations concerning the Roman Catholic Council Vatican I, writes in part:
“If we declared Pius IX [1846-1878] [who was the Pope at the time of the Roman Catholic Council Vatican I] infallible, we are bound, as a natural and necessary inference, to hold that all of his Papal predecessors are also infallible.”But, for anyone to take a different position would be to say that no Pope before 1870 was Infallible which is something clearly contradicted by the history of the Roman Catholic Church according to various Roman Catholic Church officials, including various Popes before 1870, along with some Bishops, theologians, and Church historians !
Logically, one can not pick and choose, as if one was in a cafeteria, saying only this or that Encyclical, or other kind of document, or sermon, or letter, or whatever was Infallible before 1870.
The bottom line is this: Before the Roman Catholic Council Vatican 1 in 1870:
a) either everything every Roman Catholic Pope did, said, and wrote was Infallible;The Roman Catholic Council Vatican 1 Infallibly teaches all Roman Catholics that everything every Roman Catholic Pope did, said, and wrote before 1870 was Infallible. Furthermore, please realize that the Pope is always the Pope until he dies, resigns from office, or becomes a heretic, schismatic, or apostate. This means that what some theologians refer to as the charisma of Infallibility is always with him so long as he remains the Pope.
b) or nothing every Roman Catholic Pope did, said, and wrote was Infallible.
In other words, because the Pope is Infallible in virtue of his Immediate Ordinary Magisterium, he never acts in a non-infallible way because this special charisma of Papal Infallibility is always with him as long as he continues to be the Pope.
To better understand this, even though the charisma of Papal Infallibility is far inferior to the indelible mark a person gets when receiving the Sacraments of the Holy Priesthood and the Episcopacy, this indelible mark of the Sacrament remains forever, for all eternity, on the immortal Soul of each Priest who has validly received the Sacrament of the Holy Priesthood, and likewise on the immortal Soul of each Bishop who has validly received the Sacrament of the Holy Episcopacy which is the fullness of the Holy Priesthood.
This means there is never a time when a valid Priest is not a valid Priest and when a valid Bishop is not a valid Bishop because there is never a time when a valid Priest and a valid Bishop do not have the indelible mark of their respective Sacrament, even if they become a heretic, a schismatic, or an apostate from the Roman Catolic Faith.
For example, the Roman Catholic Bishops and Priests who became Protestants in the 16th Century still continued to remain valid Priests and Bishops because there is no way they could ever loose the indelible mark of their respective Sacrament of the Priesthood and the Episcopacy, as even the Scripture testifies:
Thou art a Priest for ever, according to the Order of Melchisedech (Hebrews 5:6).While this refers specifically to Christ, it also refers to those members of His Holy Priesthood of the New and Eternal Covenent who are also validly Ordained according to the Order of Melchisedech:
“But the feast of unleaven bread [of the Jewish Old Covenant] which then began lasted for a week ended with an octave. The octave signifying completeness, typified eternity in heaven and was emblematic of the Mass where Christ is sacrificed day by day on our Altars by Priests of the Eternal Order of Melchisedech.” (Father James L. Meagher, D.D., “How Christ Said the First Mass,” Chapter 12, The Prayers and Ceremonies of the Canon of the First Mass, p. 405; emphasis added.)Thus, the charisma of Papal Infallibility is always with the Pope because there is never a time when the Roman Catholic Pope is not the Roman Catholic Pope unless and until he: 1) dies; or, 2) resigns; or, 3) becomes a heretic, or a schismatic, or an apostate from the Roman Catholic Faith, in which case he is no longer a Roman Catholic and thus, automatically, no longer is a Roman Catholic Pope.
“Christ knew the Temple was to be destroyed, that its priesthood was to pass away, that another Priesthood foretold according to the Order of Melchisedech was to rise over the world, be eternal and sacrifice Him [Christ].” (Father James L. Meagher, D.D., “How Christ Said the First Mass,” Chapter 12, The Prayers and Ceremonies of the Canon of the First Mass, p. 407; emphasis added.)
“The High Priest of eternity [Jesus Christ] was not to stay always here in our world of sufferings and sorrows, but after finishing the work His Father gave Him to do, man's redemption, to return to Heaven. Would He leave the world without a Divinely Ordained Priesthood? Then mankind would be worse off than before He came, for there would be no sacrifice, no religious body of men who could speak with Divine authority. The world required a Priesthood. He [Christ] would give the world Priests to sacrifice Him in truth and reality, as the [Jewish] Temple priests had sacrificed Him in type and figure.” (Father James L. Meagher, D.D., “How Christ Said the First Mass,” Chapter 12, The Prayers and Ceremonies of the Canon of the First Mass, p. 407; emphasis added.)
“The [Jewish] Passover was celebrated only once [a year], the feast which followed was celebrated for a week [once a year], each night it was held with holy solemnity, for it foretold the Mass which takes place not once, but continues down the ages, lasting till the end, Offered by Priests of the Eternal Order of Melchisedech. The octave typifies eternity with God in the other world.” (Father James L. Meagher, D.D., “How Christ Said the First Mass,” Chapter 12, The Prayers and Ceremonies of the Canon of the First Mass, p. 412; emphasis added.)
Likewise, a person can not even become a Roman Catholic Pope if he was a heretic, a schismatic, or an apostate before being elected a Pope, in which case his Papal election is null and void and he is not a valid Pope and can never become a valid Pope.
This is the Infallible teaching of His Holiness, Pope Paul IV, Gian Pietro Carafa [Monday, May 23, 1555 - Tuesday, August 18, 1559], in his Infallible Papal Bulla Cum ex Apostolatus Officio, Sunday, February 15, 1559.
“40. It uses this Form of words in the Consecration of the Lord’s Body:
“41. And [It uses this Form of words in the Consecration] of His Blood:‘For this is My Body’. (Latin: Hoc est enim Corpus meum.)
‘For this is the Chalice of My Blood, of the New and Everlasting Covenant; the Mystery of Faith, which will be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins’.(Cantate Domino, An Infallible Papal Bulla of the Infallible Roman Catholic Pope Eugene IV, Gabriele Condulmer [Thursday, March 3, 1431 - Tuesday, February 23, 1447]. This is the Infallible Papal Bulla of Union with the Copts which Infallibly Decreed, in union with the Infallible Ścumenical and Doctrinal Roman Catholic Council of Florence, in Session 11, Friday, February 4, 1442 A.D., the exact unchangeable Form of words to be used by every Mass Celebrant when Offering the Holy Sacrifice of the Catholic Mass.)
(Latin: Hic est enim Calix Sanguinis Mei, Novi et AEterni Testamenti; Mysterium Fidei, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.)
Because the Roman Catholic Council Vatican 1 Infallibly teaches all Roman Catholics that everything every Roman Catholic Pope did, said, and wrote before 1870 was Infallible, this obviously includes the Papal Bulla Cantate Domino which is therefore an Infallible Papal Bulla of the Infallible Roman Catholic Pope Eugene IV which Infallibly teaches what the exact unchangeable and Infallible Form is - word-for-word - that must be used in the Double Consecration of the Catholic Mass in order to have a valid Mass.
Therefore, any change of any kind made to this Infallible Form means that such a Mass is not really a Catholic Mass!
It might be a Protestant memorial supper meal mass, or a Shinto mass, or a Buddhist mass or a Communist mass, or a whatever else mass, but it is NOT a real and valid Catholic Mass!
Does the Mass you attend have this EXACT Form, word-for-word:
“For this is My Body’. (Latin: Hoc est enim Corpus meum.)”If your answer is no, then you are NOT attending a valid Catholic Mass, but rather some kind of a non-Catholic fake and phony pretend mass!
‘For this is the Chalice of My Blood, of the New and Everlasting Covenant; the Mystery of Faith, which will be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins’.
(Latin: Hic est enim Calix Sanguinis Mei, Novi et AEterni Testamenti; Mysterium Fidei, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.)
All non-Catholic fake and phony pretend masses blaspheme Almighty God and call down His wrath upon those responsible for such a Satanic act!
Because part of what theologians call the ontological essence of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is that it is an act of the Worship of God, which act of Worship is perfected in the Double Consecration during which the Mass Celebrant Offers the Infinite Victim to God as an act of the Worship of God.
But any Mass Celebrant who, by a deliberate contrary act of whatsoever kind, fails to perform this act of the Worship of God in the way it is required by the perfect and unchangeable institution of the Eternal High Priest, Jesus Christ: 1) mocks God; 2) mocks the act of Transubstantion; 3) mocks the Mass itself! This kind of mockery is called blasphemy! It is a Mortal Sin! It is also an act of heresy and apostasy from the Catholic Church!
The celebrant of such an invalid mass, unless he repents and, by the Grace of God, makes a firm resolution to never do this again, is infallibly on his way to Hell!
In conclusion, all those who contribute to the financial support of that church and/or to that invalid mass celebrant, share in the Mortal Sin of that invalid mass celebrant and, as it were, play with the fire of heresy, schism, and apostasy from the Catholic Church themselves, putting their immortal souls in jepordy of eternal fire in Hell!
A word to the wise is sufficient!
“ANATHEMA then appears as the more solemn form of pronouncing or declaring excommunication” (Rev. P. Chas. Augustine, O.S.B., D.D., A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law, Volume 8, Canons 2255 & 2256, p. 170.)
ANATHEMA: A thing or person struck by God’s malediction and intended for ruin. Cf. I Cor. 12:13; Rom. 9:3; Gal. l:8-9. Anathema, in actual Church discipline, is the term used for IPSO FACTO excommunication incurred by those denying a solemnly defined Truth, as is concluded principally from the dogmatic canons of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent and the Vatican Council, (i.e. the Roman Catholic Council Vatican I). (Parente, Piolanti, Garofalo, Dictionary of Dogmatic Theology, “Anathema”.)
It is of the greatest importance that in order to gain assured knowledge of things, to rely on exact acquaintance with facts, rather than on the uncertain testimony of public rumor; and then what we have proved for certain we may proclaim without hesitation.
(Saint Bernard of Clairvaux [b. Castle Fontaines, near Dijon, France in 1090 A.D. - d. at Clairvaux, France on Friday, August 21, 1153 A.D.], Abbot of Clairvaux, Doctor of the Church, Letters).
wherein the Priest alone
and are, therefore,
to be abrogated [abolished];
let him be anathema.
(Roman Catholic Council of Trent,